ѹ : 2008-05-16 15:41:32 ӹǹҪ : 1461 views

͹Ҥصˡ FTA

˹Сâ¢ͺࢵŧͧ FTA 㹻ѨغѹաþѲ͡š੾Сҧдǡ㹡š¹Թҧѹҹ Фͺ繷Ӥѭèҷء¾ ŧع úԡ СþѲҴҹҧ ѹ 駹㨤ѭҨöªҡ͵ŧѧҧ

㹻Ѩغѹ÷лʸɰԨäҢͧšѧԹ˹кäҡ ҧǴ ֧ҡèҡä㹡ͺǷբͧͧäҧ (WTO) ͧ׺˹ǢͧСѹ 駹ͧҡᵡҧͧҾҧɰԨСþѲҷҧѹҡҪԡ觼ŷʹ Żª Фͧ÷ҧäҢͧȵҧ ᵡҧѹҡҡ᷺շҧҧͺСԡҤŧöԴ͹䢷ªء (win-win) ҧѹ  

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ǢͧҪҢͧ WTO ȵҧ ѹʹ㹡÷Ӥŧä㹡 ҧͧҡҧǴ WTO ԴҧöԹ͹䢷кҧҧ ˵Ӥѭȵҧ 觷Ӥŧäҧѹ ੾ٻẺҤ FTA (Free Trade Agreement) 鹤Ф˵ؼŢͧдǡ㹡õŧ

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ͧҡŧѹ»Ȩ֧öҼŻªҡ ˵ؼŷҧͧҹ ˵ؼŷҧɰԨӤѭ ҧºԧººѺԹҢͧͧ˹ͻȤ㹵Ҵȷ赹ͧӤŧ ԹҢͧͧҵҴҡͧҡͧšҡù¡дǡ 駡Ҵ͹觶դºдѺá

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ͧö繷ѡҧҹ١͢¡ä ͧ͡çŧعҡһͨ觷ѧ ѧ»Ȩ֧ͧ觷ӤŧѺȵҧ ҡǷشз ੾лȷѡҾ繵ҴԹҷӤѭͧͧ 觻ȵҧ èҡäҡ觷繢ͧȵͧդŧäաѺ ҡҹ

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º㹡觢ѹѺȤ㹵ҴӤѭ ѧ鹨֧ͨҷ¾觡èҡäաѺȤҷӤѭ չ ѰԡЭ Թ 觷è FTA ͧ繡ȷջЪҡѹҡ 2,000 ҹ 觨繵ҴҴŢͧ 繤ҷӤѭ觢ͧ

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˹Сâ¢ͺࢵŧͧ FTA 㹻ѨغѹաþѲ͡š੾Сҧдǡ㹡š¹Թҧѹҹ Фͺ繷Ӥѭèҷء¾ ŧع úԡ СþѲҴҹҧ ѹ 駹㨤ѭҨöªҡ͵ŧѧҧ ѡ¡ѹ ԴҧɰԨ;ѹԵ÷ҧɰԨ (Close Economic Partnership CEP)

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Щй 繵ҧ աü١§ҡѹ㹡кǹõͧ Шաš¹ѹҢԴª٧شͧн ѧ ͧҾͧͻª (Complementary) ͧӹҭªҾ觨繢ͧ㹡õŧѹ 㹡кǹèҹлȨա§þԨóҼ੾ҢԹ ҨеͧԨóҢҢФ

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觨աѴѹҡҡäҧҧҹ þԨóʶҹҾշش (optimal position) йӻªͻҡش觷ҷЫѺ͹ҧ þٴ ҧѺԴͺл 駡֡ҼҾ繤繷ͧ

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صˡ: ªç˹   

šз͡ʢͧդŧäաѺȵҧ ͺ FTA ҧ ͧҤصˡ㹻Ѩغѹ ҡ͹§㴹鹢ѺѡɳТͧɰԨصˡͧȤè طʵ㹡ҧҤصˡ㹡èҧ ѵػʧѡͧ÷ FTA Ŵػäҧäҧѹ ¡Ŵѵšҡ СâѴػäҧäҵҧ ͡ҡ ѧ件֧Сҧ͡ʡŧعҧѹ СȤѭͻе㹡âµҴԹҵͧ ӤѭҤصˡѧ༪ԭ

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1. çҧšҡâͧԹҵҧ ͹ҧ٧ºѺȤèҵҧ ѧèШè ѵ¢ͧҡѺ 10[1] 㹢зѵšҡâͧȤèҢͧдѺ͹ҧӡҡ չѵҡѺ 7 ǹҡѺ 2.5 ¡ѺѰԡ ҡѺ 2.5 3 ӴѺ §Թҹ鹷ѵšҡä͹ҧ٧Ңͧ ҳ 17

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 ѧ èǹͧŴšҡصˡѡеͧŴѵ·ҡһȤè ѵšҡâͧȤè㹻Ѩغѹ٧ҡػäͧ͡ͺ蹷͹ö㹡觢ѹͧԹ㹻ȤҨ ҧáӤѭ ¡ԹصˡèŴѵšҡҧѹ еͧԨó´¡Ӥѭ

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ж֧ѵšҡâͧȤèҨѵҵ 㹺ҧ¡ѵšҡâͧȤèѧдѺ٧ öԡѾͧѰԡ ¡觷ͧ͢ ٧֧ 20 й͡ҡ ѧͧԨóҶ֧Ѩ Сͺ ҷ

- ԹصˡѡҾ㹡͡任ȹ оԨóҨҡѡҾ͡ººͧȫ觨дٶ֧öͧ͡ºѺöͧ㹵ҴӤѭ 駤״蹢ͧԹ㹵Ҵ ҡԹصˡ㹵ҴͧȤèҡѧ觢ѹѺ觷ҧҹҤԹҷդ״蹵Ҥ٧

ѧ ŴѵšҡâͧȤèԹصˡŧзö͡ҡ 㹡óբͧѺ¹ Թصˡ¨ªҡ㹡Ŵšҡ 觷 ¨Ŵѵšҡŧ˹觨ҡ 25 12.5 ѹշ͵ŧռ㹷ҧԺѵ͹Ҥ 2548 觨з觷ͨҡöºԹҹҡչ¡ 12.5 ֧Ҥ״蹵ҤҨҡ ҡ÷᷹ (Substitution effects) ͧԹµͻȤ觹Ҩз¢µҴͧصˡ㹵Ҵ 

- 㹷ҧѺѹŴѵšҡȤè ͧԹصˡ鹻Ȩ繵ͧդͧáù ŴѵšҡȤèҡз㹻ª ҧá þԨóҤͧӹ֧֧ö㹡÷᷹ ж֧һȨöԵԹҹ ö觷᷹§㹻

ŴѵšҡԹ˹觡Ҩ觼šз͡ŴŧͧúԹҷ᷹öԵ㹻 觤ö㹡÷᷹ͧԹл㹤֡ͧ繵ͧԹǡѹ ҨԹ§ѹ͵ҧѹ öͺʹͧͧâͧͧͧдѺǡѹ ҡԹҷ繻§ѹ šзҡ鹵ӴѺ ѺԹصˡѵشԺ

 ö㹡÷᷹ͧԹҵҧШӡѴ᤺ŧ ͧҡͨӡѴҡͧ÷ͧѵشԺ੾Ш㹡кǹüԵ óաŴšҡѺ¡ѺȤèѰԡҷ¨ӵͧԹҹ¡աüԵԹһ蹷§ѺԹҹͧҡ㹡кǹüԵͧԹҹ㹡кǹüԵ鹵͹

- ͡ҡͧͧҡŴ 㹡èҡѺȤèҷдѺþѲ٧ ҨТ㹡Ŵѵչҹ ͧҡûѺǢͧçҧɰԨءҹͧöͧѺªҡ FTA 鹨ҹҹ 駵鹷ع٧ ûѺҹ駴ҹ ºԺѵ çҧüԵءҤǹͧ   

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2. ȤèҷѡСá˹ҵáõҧ ػä͡ùԹ㹵Ҵ Ҩ繴ҹҵðҹ٧ҡŷ աкǹ÷Ѻ͹ҡ鹷عù٧Թ ҹеͧաèм١§Ѻ Ŵšҡ ӹ¤дǡ㹡ŧع ;Ըšҡ ͻ ¨еͧ繽ҡ

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Ƿҧ͡ٻͧ¡дѺҵðҹԹ͹Ҥҧѹ㹴ҹҵðҹԵѳ ԹöҴдǡҵðҹдѺҡŷ ҡ֡Ңͧ Ando-Fujji (2003)[1] ӹdzšҵááմѹҧäҷšҡ (NTM/NTB) ͡ٻšҡ (Tariff Equivalence) оѵҡáմѹҧäҷšҡâͧȡѧѲҷ¨٧һȡѧѲҡ
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»ȾѲҷ¶֧С˹ҵááմѹҤصˡ¡Ҥɵá ѵҷ٧һȷѧѲҡ ѡɳСͧҵááդᵡҧѹ͡ »ȡѧѲҨ鹡ҵá÷ҧҹҵðҹФسҾԹҹСʹѺʹع Ӥѭ 㹢зȡѧѲҨ繡ҵáäǺù Скǹùҷҡ

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Ѻ¹ ҵááմѹҧäҷšҡͤԴ͹Ѻѵšҡè٧ҡ ҤصˡҡѺ 9  Ҥɵá 114  ºѺȤèҷӤѭͧ ѰԡѴǹͧѵҡáմѹҧäҷҤصˡ٧֧ 39  99 㹢зҤɵá٧ 135 77 ӴѺ[2]   

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3. ŧعҡҧ ੾صˡȤèդӹҭ¡ͧдǡԴһдǡЧ¢ ੾дҹŧع ҹ鹨ͧ繻е㹡кԹ¹ л ·Ӥŧäմ ѧ ªѺеͧҡҡԹعСèҧҹҹ е֧ͧþѲصˡʹѺʹع Сö·ʹ෤ ú СõҴҡŧعҹ 繺ѹѺصˡҴš[3] 

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ҧ 1: Tariff Equivalence ͧȵҧ ¡ѧ FTA

šûѺŴҧšҡ Trade Creation

㹡ͺèҡäҧǹâµǡäҧȤèҴ¡ѹѡ鹡ôԹҹ 2 ҹӤѭ áӨѴŴáմѹҧäٻẺšҡ (Tariff Barrier) աҹ˹觡 ػä šҡ (Non-Tariff Barriers) 駡äҧѹ (Trade Facilitation)[1] Ҩ èѴкšҡ÷ջԷҾ

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С÷ӤŧҹҵðҹС÷ͺ 繵 ÷ͧöŴػäҧä㹴ҹҧ ѧǨ觼ȷͧªҡâµǷҧä (Trade Creation) ҧѹҡ ٻͧҤԹҷ١ŧ 駤㨢ͧ Фҡ¢ͧ͡㹡ú 觨觼ŷԴûѺ㹡͡ԵԹҷ赹ͧդö㹡觢ѹԧºº ѹ觼ŵͻҾ㹡ѾҡҧջԷҾ

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ҧá ԴٻẺҤշٻẺǷҧɰԨẺ FTA ẺҾšҡ (Custom Union) ÷ѵšҡ÷˹ͻȹ͡Ҫԡ FTA ᵡҧѹ͡ҧҪԡ觼ŷԴѭ Trade Diversion Ѻ Ҿ ҨеͧԹҵҧҡ¡ѹҹԹҨҡȷҪԡ FTA ᷹ȹ͡Ҫԡᾧҡ[2]
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͡ҡ 㹡кǹâͧ͵ŧäշŴѭҡáմѹҧäҷšҡ (Non-Tariff Barriers: NTB Non-Tariff Measure: NTM) 觻ȷѲѡͧͷӤѭ㹡ûͧáԨͧͧ ҵáõҧ 鹨觼ŷԹҢͧҧȷ赹ͧͧáմѹö㹻 Ҥ͵鹷ع٧ ͺҧա繷ҧҹ෤Ԥ (Technical Barrier to Trade TBT)

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š֡Ңͧ Ando Fujji (2002) ʴһȷѲҷҨ繭Ѱԡ բҴͧáմѹҧäٻ NTM NTB ѵҷ٧ҡºѺѵšҡ NTM NTB ҹ ǹҡѡҵá÷ҧҹҵðҹԹҷ͹ҧ٧ 駡ʹѺʹعѺ͹ԷԾŷҧͧǢͧ й͡ҡ

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֡Ңͧ Ando Fujji ѧҵáҹлҡҤɵҡصˡ (ٵҧ 1) ¡鹡óբͧѰԡҷʹѺʹعԹɵѧ٧ ੾صˡӵ ҵáҤɵáлСͺ¡ʹѺʹعҵáôҹǺҳù 㹢зҵáôҹصˡ繴ҹҵðҹԵѳ кǹõǨͺ §ҹùҷǴ

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ҡš֡ҼšзɰԨͧ÷ FTA ͧ¡Ѻ Ѱԡ չ Թ ǫŹ 繻ȷ¡ѧӢ͵ŧäմ[1] оҡաŴѵšҡ÷Ҥɵصˡѭ ¨ѵҢµǷҧɰԨ 㹢зäҧȡТµ鹷駡ù͡

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鹢ͧú㹻 ֧ʴԡ÷ҧѧ 㹴ҹüԵաâµǹ ;ԨóҢǨо Ҥɵáͧ¨աâµաԴշҧäҡѺȭ Ѱԡ չ Թºҧ¡ 觼šзüԵŴŧ㹡óշӡäաѺйǫŹ мšзйҡ㹡óբͧ

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;ԨóҾͧҤصˡ ¨лʺѭҡŴŧͧüԵҤصˡͺء¡ ¡Ǵͧ觷 ػó硷͹ԡ ҤصˡѺšзҡ÷ FTA  Ѻ㹡óբͧ Ҥصˡ͹ҧºǴӤѭ

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Ѻ㹡óշԴաäҡѺ 7 ǡѹ оҤüԵաâµǻҳ 4.01 ҤصˡѺšз¾ԨóҨҡšä صˡ ҹ¹Ъǹ صˡաûͧ͹ҧ٧лȤ觷դö٧ 㹢зȨºҢͧ觷 ͧ˹ѧ[2] ѹ ŧعСúТѵҷ٧蹡ѹ (ٵҧ 2)  

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ҧ 2 šзҡԴաäẺҤբͧ

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ҧá ;Ԩó㹡ͺͧʴԡ÷ҧѧªҡúͧöҶ֧ԹҤҷ١ŧ Сú ǹ繻ªͧԵ Producer Surplus ǹҡҤɵáդºԧºº٧ Ҥصˡ¤ҴҨö͡ ҷ 觷 ͧ˹ѧ оһȨöҧʴԡҡҡ 3.5 ҹҹ­Ѱ

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㹡óշöԴշҧäҡѺ 7 ȤèöŴšҡŧٹء¡ 㹷ҧԺѵԴ͹ͧҡҡ ͧҡ¡ԹҤ͹Ǩеҧѹ ҷ صˡͧ˹ѧͧ ͹ӵŷ¢ͧѰԡ ҧá ҡŴҢصˡŧ§˹觢ͧء¡áѺȤ

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¡ѧöҧԺⵢͧҤüԵ 3.5 ͡ҡ ҡԨó㹡óբͧ NTM NTB ¨ª㹡âµǷҧҹüԵ٧աҡ ҷ 㹡óջȭ蹷ѵҡáմѹҧäҷšҡ٧ҡ 觨ҡäӹdz GTAP оҡöèҴҹ NTM NTB ŴŧҤ˹ 觼ŷѵҡ鹢ͧâµǢͧɰԨͧ·èҡ¡ԡšҡèҡ 1.2 繡 5 繵

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͡ʷͧҧ

ҡǢҧ鹷 §觷ҡѧ༪ԭ㹡кǹѲâͧšкɰԨᴹҡ л¡礧Ҩö׹š §Ҥصˡ¨ҧǷҧͧդö鵹ͧçҾǴա觢ѹعçҧ ҡͧäҧȷšҡ ػäҧä ͹¡ŧعҧȷдǡ ͧ͡ûͧѺصˡŴŧ 㹢ǡѹ繡Դе͡ʷҧ ǷҧûѺǷӤѭͧҤصˡöªҡҾѧҧջԷҾҡش

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1.ѲҤسҾԹҵðҹҡǷش мŢͧèҡäҵá÷繴ҹӤѭصˡ¨н㹵ҴȤҷҵá÷šҡ ҵðҹԹ ͹䢴ҹ¸ ѧ FTA еͧҧ͡Դ͡ѺȤè¡дѺþѲԹҵðҹҵͧè͡ʷصˡ觡þѲҤسҾҵðҹҡѺ [1] 

 

 

 

 

2.ҧ͡ѡɳͧԹŴö㹡÷᷹ͧԹ ҧ͡ѡɳҨҨҡҾѡɳͧԹ㹤֡ͧ (consumer’s perception) ֧ҧô þѲ ѵ Сҧ÷ԹᵡҧҡԹҨҡҧա§༪ԭ˹С觢ѹعçҡ鹨ҡҾǴҧáԨšҡ

3. FTA ҧ͡㹡þѲһԷҾ Ҿѡɳͧصˡ㹵Ҵš ҧö㹡觢ѹҡش蹢ͧȤè ¡¹ҹҧ͢¾ѹԵ ŧع ͷҧҹ෤ ҷ 㹡óբͧ·դö٧㹴ҹ෤ صˡöҧ͡㹡¹Ѵͧѧ͹ҾѲصˡؤ

͡üѡѹդѹҹҵðҹԹҡѺȤèҷժʹҹسҾԹصˡ ҡöҧѺҵðҹԹصˡɵáѺ蹫繻ȷժ§㹴ҹҵðҹԵѳ[1] зسҾҵðҹͧԹ㹵Ҵš繷㨡Ѻ

4.Ȥè繻екԹ ȤèҪԡäһȨеͧҧѡҾͧѡŧع㹵ҧ ҧҧ ͢¡þѲѹ㹻Ȥè蹹Թ¨öҹҹҴ觡ԴԹ㹡ɰԨ

5.ҾǴҧɰԨ͹䢷ҧáԨ͵͡觢ѹͧҤصˡ ੾çҧյҧ 㹢ͧȷ觼ŷշԴѺԵ㹻٧Թҹ 㹻Ѩغѹзǧäѧ˹ͺçҧšҡ 1, 5, 10 繵 ѺԹҷ繻Ѩ¡üԵ ԹҢ鹡ҧ ԹٻӴѺ ҧáѧդͧصˡо״ҷصˡͧͧçҧѧ

觡кշѹ觼ŵͤѡ蹢ͧкмŵͤö㹡觢ѹͧصˡҾ Тй èҤŧҧäҷ´ԹǹռŴԹ ҷ Ѻ չ Թ кù 繵 ѺѺ¹ AFTA 60 ͧ¡ѵҷ 0 鹵 ШТ 80 ͧ¡㹻 2550  

6.ѲҡüԵͺкǹüԵҡش 駡ҧŤ㹻ҡ صˡöѴѭ͹䢢ͧҴ觡ԴԹ FTA Ѻѹ͹䢷عçЫѺ͹ҡ鹷ءѹ 駡ªҡ FTA ȷӡѺȵҧ ©Ѻҡش ѵشԺ鹶١ ʹҹ෤ըҡȷբ͵ŧäմ öԵԹ͡Ҥҷ觢ѹ

šҾǴҧáԨ繡÷ҷѡҾФöͧǢͧͧҤصˡ·ءǹҤѰ͡ е͡ʷԴѺ§ҨԴء Ǵ 㹷ءҧǸáԨ ҧطʵ㹡ûѺ¹СҧѺҤصˡöѺªҡԴաäҨӵͧҧҭҴзѹó

¤ºԧººѴਹ ҧط Globally Strategy ¨شФ觡Ҩͧö㹡觢ѹѺͧ 駡ҧҾǴ͹䢵ҧ ͵͸áԨͧСͺҧ·ȹͧҤѰЪҤصˡöѡҾͧͧҧԷҾ

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1ѵ¢ͧšҡ (Most Favorite Nation: MFN) ͧ㹻 2547  

2Ando-Fujji (2003) Tariff Equivalence, WTO

3Ando-Fujji (2003) ӹdzѵҡáմѹҧäҷšҡ͡ºѵšҡ ¡þԨóҨҡҤҹԹҢͧȵҧ Ҥ c.i.f. Ҥҷ㹻ҤҢ»ա㹻ȹ  

4÷ӤŧäաѺ»ǡѹҨ繢ºͧ㹡èҵͧ лȤӤѭդö㹡ŧع٧Ҩͧ͡Ҩö繰ҹüԵСŧعҴӤѭ㹻ҹ ¡ѧӤŧҧäմ 㹷ҧѺѹҨ繢ºӤѭա蹷¡ѧӤŧäҴǧҷҧͧѹԹҢͧա˹觷繤繰ҹüԵ觢ѹ㹻ȵ ѧҨҷҧͧѹ¡˹Ҵ觡ԴԹСԡҵҧ ͹ҧ觤Ѵ͡èҷǴ㹡Ŵѵ͡Żª Ѻ ᷹оԨó੾صˡͧҹ 件֧ԹҢͧȤ觷ŧع㹻´ 觼ŷصˡ·繢ͧ¨ԧ ʺӺҡ㹡ôԹõ͹䢴ѧ

5èҢ͵ŧä (FTA) 㹻Ѩغѹաâ¡ͺè͡ҡ§â¡äҧҪԡҹ Фͺ ҷ úԡ ŧع ûͧŧع ͹ºؤ èҢ͵ŧҡ㹻ѨغѹȷѺȵҧ ҷ Ѱԡ ֧繾ѹԵ÷ҧɰԨ (Economic Partnership) ҡ§͵ŧҧäҹ

6÷ FTA зҤԹҨҡҪԡŴŧµҼ ͧҡŴŧͧšҡèзҤѺ㹻Ŵŧ ѺȨеͧҧѺҧҤ

7äӹdz GTAP üšзҹºԸմҾ (Genaral Equilibrium)

8ѧ 㹡è FTA Ѻȭ Ъ͡ŴšҡâͧŧǴ觢ѹ ҹ¹Ъǹҹ¹ ҼСͺ¨öѺͧѺ觢ѹдѺ˹ 㹢ǡѹѡѹԴմҹ觷ͧ ͧ˹ѧѺ

9ȤèҢͧ¨ӤѭѺԹҷ赹ͧͧҨҡ ҷ 蹨㹡þѲҵðҹԹɵáҧ¡÷ͧҨҡ ҷ ҧ ʹ㹡Թҷ͹Ѻͧ

10¾мѡѹաèѴӡѺѹҹҵðҹԵѳѺ Թҷͧ繪ͺѹ áդ㹡Ң͵ŧ㹡Ѻѹҹ÷ͺҵðҹԵѳصˡ ШТµԹ

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ҧԧ

  1. Ando and Fujji, "Hidden Trade Protection: Estimating Tariff Equivalents of Core and Non-Core Non-Tariff Measures in the APEC Member Economies", WTO, May, 2003
  2. Lee, H, Roland-Hoist D, and van der Mensbrugghe, "General Equilibrium Assessments of Trade Liberalization in APEC Cconomies", Discussion Paper Series, Research Institute for Economics and Business Administration, Kobe University
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  5. ӹѡҹɰԨصˡ, §ҹšзҤصˡҡèҢ͵ŧä, ͡ ()
  6. ӹѡҹɰԨصˡ, طʵûѺçҧصˡ, 2548

     

 

 

 

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